At the back of the eye, directly in line with the pupil, is an area of the retina called the macula. In the center of the macula is an indentation called the fovea that is packed with cones, cells that require high levels of light in order to function. As light enters the eye through the pupil, it is concentrated into the area of the macula and the fovea. Because of the cones that comprise the macula, central vision is crisp, clear, detailed and in color.
The macula, an area just 5mm in diameter (roughly the thickness of a fingernail), is responsible for the vision that is necessary for many daily activities. Any condition that impairs this area will adversely affect central vision and the ability to carry out many activities that are important to daily life.